A Hindu Panchang is a Hindu astronomical calendar which follows the traditional Indian cosmology and it shows the importance of astronomical data in tabulated format. It forecasts the celestial phenomena such as the solar eclipses, weather, rains, winter as well as more of the daily occurrences.
Astrology remains an important part in the lives of the Hindus. They believe a lot in astrology and often perform their tasks as and when it says. In Hindus, the new-borns are also named looking at the jyotish charts and concepts after deciding on a date from Hindu panchang.
The most important decisions of life like marriage, opening a new business , buying a new home or even moving into that new home is carried on as per the Hindu panchangam. Panchangam means “pancha” (five) and “anga” (elements). So these five elements are vaar (day), tithi (date), nakshatra (star), yoga, and karana (half tithis). This is all known by different names like Hindu panchangam, panchangamu, jantri and so many other names. The holy saints and sages often used Hindu panchang to find the good and bad times during the year.
The vaar (day) is measured from one sunrise to the next sunrise. There are seven vaars in Hindu panchangam- Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday. The tithi is also known as the phases of moon. It is merely an angle between the sun and the moon to increase by 12 degrees. Unlike the western calendar tithi and vaar can never be exactly 24 hours in length.
Tithis begin at various times of the day and also vary in duration from approximately 19 to 26 hours. There can be more than one tithi also during the day. These tithis are known as prathama, dwitiya, tritiya and so on. The moons movement is never constant. And therefore it gives us varying lengths of time it spends in each nakshtra. However even this could be again 19 to 26 hours. The yoga is the sum of all the longitudes of the sun and the moon. This sum is divided into 27 equal parts and each part is therefore known as one yoga. There are 11 karnas and out of them 4 are mixed and 7 of them are repeating karnas.
Most of the people buy the Hindu panchangam and can use it anywhere in the world. We need different panchangam for different cities. The current panchangam is known as the Hindu panchang. The panchangam is important for every year so that people all across the world can see the right time of the festival at which ever location you are.
The panchang that is available in India only prints the end times in Indian standard timings, you then need to convert it according to the timings of your location and use local sunrise and sunset to find out a particular thing. We calculate the panchangam by two important heavenly bodies like the sun and the moon. However people of ancient times used various methods to calculate them.